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Category: Mineral Article
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Abstract

The Earth is a dynamic planet with a remarkable geological history and diversity. The continental masses and oceans on the surface of the Earth have changed continuously and evolved over much of geological time.

Plate tectonic activities resulted in several earthquakes and volcanic activities which resulted in large-scale crustal deformation and changed in ocean and continents. With the different time interval the abiotic process operated continuously in macro and micro scale for more than four billion years. Mountain ranges have formed and been eroded, and the rock debris deposited and recycled.