ASEAN Minerals Information

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ASEAN Minerals Information

Saline Soil Development in the Northeastern Part of Thailand

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Abstract

In response to His Majesty the King's advice and initiative, the Department of Mineral Resources (DMR) has set up a 4-year project (2008-2011) called "Saline Soil Development in the northeastern part of Thailand" aiming to determine the causes of the saline soils and propose an appropriated methods to solve the soil problems. From the study, an initial model has been experimented at Haiyong subdistrict, Phangkhon district, Sakonnakhon province and the step-by-step approaches for saline soil improvements (DMR's saline soil solutions guidelines) have been proposed. After that since 2012 the Saline Sail Development in the northeastern part of Thailand (Phrase 2: extension) has been carried out to introduce the achieve approaches to other saline soil areas in the northeastern part of Thailand. The work is undertaken in cooperation with local education, local communities and local organization. At present, the saline soil learning centers have been established in 8 provinces (Khonkaen, Udonthani, Mahasarakham, Roiet, Nakhonratchasima, Chaiyaphum, Buriram, and Surin). The achieved approaches for saline soils improvement proposed by DMR can be applied to other saline soil areas.

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Modern Sea Floor Topography and Late Quaternary Seismic Stratigraphy of the Upper Gulf of Thailand

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Abstract

The modern seafloor topography of the Upper of Thailand is relatively smooth and has little relief, except on the southwestern and eastern-southeastern parts of the area where bathymetric depressions  were encountered The slope gradient has a break point between 12-15 m bathymetric. The delta front in front of the Chao Phraya River mouth is steeper (1:1,500) than in front of the Mae Klong and Tha Chin river mouths (1:2,000).

Interpretation of high-resolution seismic profiles in correlation with borehole data provided valuable information on offshore Quaternary sedimentation, tectonics as well as environmental and engineering geology of this area. Three main seismic units of late Quaternary strata formed during and since the last glacial maximum were identified; Unit 1, the lowermost unit directly overlying undifferentiated older complex sedimentary strata, displays mainly high amplitude aggrading seismic facies and moderate to high amplitude incised valley seismic configurations. It is composed of stiff alluvial silty clay alternated with silty sand and dense channel sand deposited during regression period of late Pleistocene lowst and sea level.

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Late Silurian and Late Devonian Radiolarian Cherts from the Truong Son Foldbelt, Lao PDR

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Abstract

New occurrence of Late Silurian radiolarian cherts were reported from a large abandoned pit and a small quarry in the Sepon mining district, central Lao PDR, including the Huai Yang Pit and the 'chert quarry' sections. This occurrence  together with new localities of Late Devonian radiolarian chert and siliceous shale outcrops observed in the region which include the Vilabouly section, indicate the existence of deep marine environment in the Truong Son foldbelt east of the Indochina Terrane.

The cherts from the Huai Yang Pit section is maroon color and contains Futobari morishitai Furutani, 1990, Zadrappolus sp., Secuicollacta sp. and others. Futobari morishitai was first described from the Yoshiki Formation, Fukuji area by Furutani, 1990 in the Zadrappolus yoshikiensis Assemblage. The genus Futobari has its first appearance in the latest Silurian and its acme in the Early Devonian on the basis of radiolarian biostratigraphy in the Kurosegawa Belt (Umeda, 1997).

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Hydrodynamics of Groundwater and Brine related to Hydrogeochemical Speciation in Sakon Nakhon Basin

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Abstract

Geochemical characteristics of groundwater and brine are related to chemical species along with the groundwater flow path. For major cations, groundwater indicates mainly sodium and calcium ions which are affected by cation exchange along the flow line. The chemical reaction occurs during fresh and salt water displacement. However, brine presents dominantly sodium and potassium ions. For major anions, bicarbonate of groundwater and chloride of brine are dominant ion. The salinity zone of sodium chloride is confined only in the small area. Besides, the influence of rock salt in some areas is concerning. Speciation of chemical species brings about the water type which the relationship of No+ and Cl- proves their stoichiometric balance. Chemical phases from the saturation indices consist of anhydrite, calcite, dolomite, and gypsum, which are found most in every sample. Moreover, mostly groundwater expresses the under saturation state. Moreover, saturation indices of brine present the super saturation for anhydrite. Flow direction and sampling point can indicate the salt effects combined with groundwater. Groundwater flows from the southern highland to the west-eastern lowland. The lowland is located as the salt evaporation field. The Visual MODFLOW computer software program is useful for creating the hydrogeological cross-section model. High hydraulic head in the west of salt dome is the recharge area where presents the high flow velocity of total dissolved solids. However, nearby the salt dome indicates its lower flow velocity because of high density of brine.

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Geological Model of Pre-Khorat Rock by using Regional Gravity and Aeromagnetic data

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Abstract

Integration of potential field, gravity and aeromagnetic, data with constraints of seismic reflection image and drill holes data in the Khorat Plateau, eastern Sakhon Nakhon basin exhibits Pre-Khorat rock aspects. Potential field data are processed via derivative techniques and interpreted in term of qualitative and quantitative interpretation. Spectral analysis technique is applied to roughly indicate depth of ensemble source. For qualitative interpretation, three magnetic patterns are classified as magnetic sources with different depth whereas gravity patterns are recognized as four gravity patterns. The patterns rather well correlate with the seismic reflection image. The western high gravity pattern underneath the Phu Phan Ranges coincides with the Permian carbonate platform and clastic of the Saraburi Group. The moderate to high gravity pattern represents the outlining distribution of the Triassic basin on the high density basement. The low to moderate gravity patterns con be divided into two patterns and indicate that the Nong Khai High Basement is not homogeneous. The NW trending pattern of low to moderate units suggest that it is possible that either sedimentary or metamorphic overly on basement.

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